Celloexpress- video tutorial for assembling animal joints - YouTube

Some joints in animals are given common names that tend to be confusing. For example:
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Shoulder-joint ligament and tendon conditions make up the majority of causes for in the canine shoulder joint, excluding osteochondritis dissecans (a condition characterized by abnormal development of bone and cartilage, leading to a flap of cartilage within the joint). It is a disease that occurs in medium to large-breed dogs when they become skeletally mature, around one year of age or older. The average age for development of this condition is between 3 to 7 years of age.
(1) Arican M, Carter SD, Bennett D: Osteocalcin in canine joint diseases. British Veterinary Journal, 1996; 152(4): 373-375, 411-423.
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Chinese herbs can also be very beneficial in the treatment of joint disorders.
It is best to have the guidance of a veterinarian trained in Chinese Medicine to
select the proper remedy for your companion's specific condition. Mechanism of Animal Joints: Sponge-hydrostatic and Weeping Bearings
Photo provided by Flickrthe frictional properties of animal joints - ScienceDirect
Photo provided by Flickrto the hypothicated “weeping bearing” properties of animal joints
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The porosity and stiffness of cartilage were measured. These properties are discussed in relation to the hypothicated “weeping bearing” properties of animal joints. A series of friction experiments were performed which provide confirmation that animal joints are weeping bearings. These experiments also confirm that synovial fluid is an excellent lubricant for cartilage.Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) is a non-toxic, non-degradable synthetic product, used for years in the augmentation of soft tissues. Preliminary results in animals and humans have suggested long-lasting beneficial effects on symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this histopathological study was to investigate whether intra-articular injection of PAAG is integrated into synovial tissue in normal and OA animal joints, and if this integration is sustained.The porosity and stiffness of cartilage were measured. These properties are discussed in relation to the hypothicated “weeping bearing” properties of animal joints. A series of friction experiments were performed which provide confirmation that animal joints are weeping bearings. These experiments also confirm that synovial fluid is an excellent lubricant for cartilage.The stifle joint (often simply stifle) is a complex joint in the of such as the , or . It is the equivalent of the human and is often the largest in the animal's body. The stifle joint joins three bones: the , , and . The joint consists of three smaller ones: the femoropatellar joint, medial femorotibial joint, and lateral femorotibial joint.(A) A prospective, controlled, longitudinal study of normal knee joints injected with PAAG was performed in 10 rabbits, following the animals up to 1 year, and (B) a post mortem examination was carried out up to 2 years post-injection on 18 horse joints which had previously been treated with 1–2 injections of 2 ml PAAG for clinically and radiologically diagnosed OA.'Cushioning' of the joint is provided by two C-shaped pieces of cartilage called menisci which sit between the medial and lateral chondyles of the distal femur and the tibial plateau. The main biomechanical function of the menisci is probably to divide the joint into two functional units—the 'femoromeniscal joint' for flexion/extension movements and the 'meniscotibial joint' for rotation—a function analogous to that of the disc dividing the temporomandibular (jaw) joint. The menisci also contain nerve endings which are used to assist in proprioreception.