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Compared to traditional single-animal imaging methods, multiple-mouse MRI has been shown to dramatically improve imaging throughput and reduce the potentially prohibitive cost for instrument access. To date, up to a single radiofrequency coil has been dedicated to each animal being simultaneously scanned, thus limiting the sensitivity, flexibility, and ultimate throughput. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of multiple-mouse MRI with a phased-array coil dedicated to each animal. A dual-mouse imaging system, consisting of a pair of two-element phased-array coils, was developed and used to achieve acceleration factors greater than the number of animals scanned at once. By simultaneously scanning two mice with a retrospectively gated cardiac cine MRI sequence, a three-fold acceleration was achieved with SNR in the heart that is equivalent to that achieved with an unaccelerated scan using a commercial mouse birdcage coil.
Color fractional anisotropy (FA) image of an actively stained mouse brain with isotropic resolution of 43 microns.
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Once the modality and the model have been selected, numerous clinically unmet needs can potentially be addressed in the laboratory through the marriage of noninvasive molecular imaging and preclinical mouse models of breast cancer. For example, the development of inhibitors targeting various portions of the ErbB signaling axis is an active and clinically important area of breast cancer research. Tz is a Food and Drug Administration–approved, recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to the extracellular domain of HER2, yet objective means to assess the treatment response to Tz therapy remain undeveloped. To this end, Whisenant et al. recently reported the use of 3′-deoxy-3′-18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) PET as an early marker of the response to Tz in HER2-overexpressing xenografts (). The researchers showed that 18F-FLT PET was sensitive to early molecular changes in Tz-sensitive, HER2-overexpressing breast cancer xenografts and that it could differentiate mouse models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer with various Tz sensitivities. mouse animal - Google Search
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This study investigates methodologies for the estimation of small animal anatomy from non-tomographic modalities, such as planar X-ray projections, optical cameras, and surface scanners. The key goal is to register a digital mouse atlas to a combination of non-tomographic modalities, in order to provide organ-level anatomical references of small animals in 3D.Considering the high cost of dedicated small animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. However spatial resolution and image quality are of concern. The utility of clinical PET/CT for small-animal research and image quality improvements from super-resolution (spatial subsampling) were investigated. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 4 phantom and mouse data were acquired with a clinical PET/CT scanner, both as conventional static and stepped scans. Static scans were reconstructed with and without point spread function (PSF) modeling. Stepped images were postprocessed with iterative deconvolution to produce super-resolution images. Image quality was markedly improved using the super-resolution technique, avoiding certain artifacts produced by PSF modeling. The 2-mm rod of the NU 4 phantom was visualized with high contrast, and the major structures of the mouse were well resolved. Although not a perfect substitute for a state-of-the-art small animal PET/CT scanner, a clinical PET/CT scanner with super-resolution produces acceptable small-animal image quality for many preclinical research studies.Several non-invasive imaging techniques are used to investigate the effect of pathologies and treatments over time in mouse models. Each preclinical in vivo technique provides longitudinal and quantitative measurements of changes in tissues and organs, which are fundamental for the evaluation of alterations in phenotype due to pathologies, interventions and treatments. However, it is still unclear how these imaging modalities can be used to study ageing with mice models. Almost all age related pathologies in mice such as osteoporosis, arthritis, diabetes, cancer, thrombi, dementia, to name a few, can be imaged in vivo by at least one longitudinal imaging modality. These measurements are the basis for quantification of treatment effects in the development phase of a novel treatment prior to its clinical testing. Furthermore, the non-invasive nature of such investigations allows the assessment of different tissue and organ phenotypes in the same animal and over time, providing the opportunity to study the dysfunction of multiple tissues associated with the ageing process.Super-resolution may be described as recovering spatial resolution by combining blurred data from multiple spatial samples (, ). Various algorithms may be implemented to produce the final image estimate, but, basically, a deconvolution process is performed using a measured or estimated kernel that models the image blur. Substantial improvements in resolution and image quality are possible, although the ability to recover high-frequency components of the data is limited. Other groups have studied super-resolution as applied to PET scans of clinically sized objects, for which count density and expectations of spatial resolution are lower than for preclinical studies (–). We applied super-resolution methods to small-animal data (phantom and mouse) acquired with clinical PET/CT and investigated what improvements in image quality are possible for preclinical research. Super-resolution images are compared to those reconstructed using the algorithms available on the clinical workstation. Our goal is to assess the feasibility of this technique for preclinical research as an inexpensive alternative to dedicated small-animal PET/CT.